Mothers have been warnedfor yearsthat sleeping with their new born infant isa bad idea because it increases the risk that the baby might die unexpectedlyduring the night.But now Israeli researchers arereporting that even sleeping in the same room canhave negative consequences, not for the child, but for the mother.Mothers who slept in the same room with their infants, whether inthe same bed or just the same room, have poor sleep the mother whose baby sleptelse where in the house. They woke up more frequently or awake approximately 20minutes longer per night and have shorter period of uninterrupted sleep. Theseresults how true even taking into account that many of the women in the studywere breast-feeding their babies. Infants, on the other hand, didn’t appear tohave worse sleep whether they slept in the same or different room from theirmothers. The researchers acknowledge that since the families they studied wereall middle classes Israelis. It is possible that the results will be differentin different cultures. Lead author TTTT wrote in an email that the researchteam also didn’t measure father sleep. So it is possible that patterns couldalso be causing the sleep disruptions for mums. Right now, to reduce the riskof sudden infant death in the room, the AmericanAcademy of PDrecommends the mothers not sleep in the same bed with their babies, but sleepin the same room. The Israeli study suggests thatdoing so, may be best for the baby, but may take at all on mum.
9What is the long health viewabout the mother sleeping with new-born babies?
10 What do Israeli researchers’ findings show?
11What does the American Academy’s PD recommendmothers do?
The US has already lost more than a third of thenative languages that existed before European colonization and the remaining192 are classed by the UNESCO as ranging between unsafe and extinct."We need more funding and more effortto return these languages to everyday use," says Fred Nowosky of theNational museum of the American Indians, "we are makingprogress, but money needs to be spent on revitalizing languages, not justdocumenting them." Some reported languages mainly in California andOklahoma where thousands of Indians were forced to relocate in the 19th centuryhave fewer than 10 native speakers. Part of the issue is that tribal groupsthemselves don't always believe their languages are endangered until they aredown to the last handful of speakers. "But progress is being made throughemerging schools, because if you teach children when they are young, it willstay with them as adults and that is the future." says Fred Nowosky. Suchschools have become a model in Hawaii, but the islanders' native language arestill classed by the UNESCO as critically endangered because only 1000 peoplespeak it. The decline in the American African languages has historical roots. In the mid 19th century, the US government adopted a policyof Americanizing Indian children by removing them from their homes andcultures. Within a few generations, most have forgotten their native tongues.Another challenge to language survival is television. Ithas brought English into homes, and pushed out traditional storytelling andfamily time together, accelerating the extinction of native languages.
Questions 12-15 are based on the passage you just heard.
12. What can we learn from the report?
13. For what purpose does Fred Nowosky appeal from thefunding?
14. What is the historical cause of the decline of theAmerican Indian Languages?15. What does the speaker say about television?